About that Reader trick

Reader can be used to track local bindings, but tracking all bindings can be more difficult.


There is an interesting post on Solomon's Blog about how the Reader monad in Haskell can be used to model variable bindings in an interpreter, which he calls "that one cool reader trick."

For those unfamiliar with Reader, it represents a computation which can reference some environment and execute sub-computations in a modified environment. Concretely, this is often used in Haskell apps to reference some kind of initial configuration or context that's needed throughout. It would often be a pain to manually pass this environment to every function that requires it, so instead, we wrap the computation in a Reader monad and then retrieve the environment when necessary with the ask function.

As Solomon writes, and as shown in the example usage of Reader in the documentation, we may also use Reader to manage variable bindings in an interpreter.

However, it's important to note that this is only useful if you want to interpret a language without global variables or mutation. This makes Reader a bad abstraction for modeling variable binding in, say, the Scheme programming language, which crucially has both of these (define for global variables and set! for mutation). Unfortunately, Reader is used to model environments in the Write You a Scheme Version 2.0 tutorial (WYAS 2), which I think is basically incorrect.

In this post, I will show how Reader can be used to model local bindings, and why it's insufficient to represent mutable or global bindings.

A tiny interpreter

Let's say we want to interpret a language with integer variables and Lisp syntax:

(let (x 10)

All our tiny language has are literal expressions (like 10), variable expressions like the x on the second line, and let expressions, like the whole block. When we evaluate the let expression, we traverse the abstract syntax tree (AST), and eventually get the result, which is just the value 10.

In our interpreter, we represent expressions with a data type called Expr 1:

data Expr 
  = Literal Integer
  | Var String
  | Let String Expr Expr -- name, value, body

An expression is either a literal integer, a variable which holds an string name, or a let expression, which has a name, a value, and a body.

We can hold our variable bindings in a map from String to Integer:

type Bindings = Map String Integer

Now we can write a simple evaluation function for our language, eval. Our evaluator takes an expression and returns a computation representing the variable bindings and the eventual result, an integer. We can implement eval like this:

eval :: Expr -> Reader Bindings Integer
eval (Literal x) = pure x
eval (Var name) = do
  env <- ask
  case Map.lookup name env of
    Just value -> pure value
    Nothing -> error "Undefined Variable"
eval (Let name valueExpr bodyExpr) = do
  env <- ask
  value <- eval valueExpr
  let modified = Map.insert name value env
  local (const modified) (eval bodyExpr)

Let's step through each part:

As you can hopefully see, using Reader to model local scope is simple to understand and easy to implement. Additionally, the ReaderT monad transformer can be used in a transformer stack to evaluate with better error handling and other effects.

Extending the technique

However, as I alluded to at the beginning of the post, as simple as this model is to understand, it's not really helpful in modeling variable bindings outside of a toy example like this, unless your language only has local scope and no mutation.

To see this, say we wanted to extend our tiny language with a define expression that created a globally scoped binding. The syntax for this would be something like this, in Scheme style:

(define x 10)

which would evaluate to 10. Say we add a Define constructor to our Expr type:

data Expr
 = ...
 | Define String Expr

where a Define expression holds a name and a value expression. The problem is, when we go to interpret this expression, we don't have a body to evaluate locally like we did with a Let expression. The body to evaluate is just implicitly the rest of the program, rather than in a Let which makes its scoping explicit.

We might be able to deal with this problem by peeking ahead in the AST to find a Define node, and when we do, evaluating the rest of the tree with the new environment, but this turns out to be pretty inelegant, and it can lead to even more difficulty when handling recursive or nested definitions. This is basically how definitions are evaluated in WYAS 2, which makes what should be a simple feature to implement in my view quite difficult to understand, (see the section "begin, define & evalBody").

While global definitions might be able to fit into our Reader evaluation model, mutation is even more difficult, and as a result WYAS 2 skips adding mutation to the language. When interpreting mutation, as with definitions, we need to deal with the fact that mutation is a side effect, and the mutated state is implicitly in play for the rest of the program. For example, take the following Scheme code:

(define x 3)

(let ()
  (set! x 4))


This should evaluate to 4, but a naive Reader implementation could give 3 since the set! mutation occurs in a different scope than the reference to the variable x.

What to do instead

If you want to interpret a language with global definitions and mutation, then, it's best not to use Reader. Instead, we can manage a stack of environments, either explicitly or with the State monad. With an environment stack:

Concretely, one way to do this would be to define our Environment type as a record containing the bindings, and possibly, a parent environment:

data Environment = Environment {   
    bindings :: Bindings,
    parent :: Maybe Environment

With this model, by keeping track of the current environment, we can push onto the stack by creating a new environment where the current environment is the parent, and we pop the stack by setting the current environment to the parent. With this, we can add definitions to our language without dealing with the difficulty of peeking ahead in the tree. Also note that this approach is similar to the implementation of environments in Nystrom's Crafting Interpreters.


The usage of Reader to implement Scheme environments in WYAS 2 is one of the main reasons why I have recently considered rewriting the tutorial. I think that Haskell is a great choice for implementing an interpreter, but its powerful abstractions must be chosen wisely, and in the case of Scheme evaluation, I think Reader is the wrong choice.

That's not to say that the Reader trick is entirely useless, but I think it's worth qualifying and understanding its implications. This also all just comes from my experience, and if you are an expert Haskeller who knows how to deal with these issues with using Reader for variable bindings, I would love to hear from you.



This isn't necessarily how I would structure Expr for a real Scheme interpreter, but just an example.